It is also called acute lymphocytic leukemia and is abbreviated as ALL. It is a rapidly progressing form of leukemia that is characterized by the presence of large numbers of unusually immature white blood cells destined to become lymphocytes. Some factors associated with an increased risk of ALL have been identified. The main environmental factor is radiation, namely prenatal exposure to x-rays or postnatal exposure to high doses of radiation. Children with Down syndrome also have an increased risk for both ALL and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Increased occurrence of ALL is also associated with certain genetic conditions, including neurofibromatosis, Shwachman syndrome, Bloom syndrome, and ataxia telangiectasia. Listed below are the most common chromosome changes observed in ALL patients.

t(12;21)(p13;q11.2) TEL/AML1

t(9;22)(q34;11.2) BCR/ABL1

t(1;19)(q23;p13.2) TCF3/PBX1

del(9p21) CDKN2A/CEP9

t4/t10 CEP4/CEP10

11q23 rearrangement KMT2A

t(4;11)(q21;q23) KMT2A/AFF1

t(11;19)(q23;p13.3) KMT2A/MLLT1

FISH analysis can be performed to confirm diagnosis and/or monitor chromosome changes during treatment. Clinicians can order individual probes or the complete ALL panel. Please refer to the Cytogenetics for Hematology/Oncology Disorders test order form to order testing and to review the specimen requirements.

Karyotype analysis can also be performed to confirm the FISH results.

Cytogenetics for Hematology/Oncology Test Order Form






Contact Information

OUHSC Genetics Laboratory 1122 NE 13th Street, Suite 1400, Oklahoma City, OK 73104

Phone (405)271-3589 Fax (405)271-7117 After hours phone (405)496-9514


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